Tuesday, February 8, 2011

Jaguar E type

The Jaguar E-Type (UK) or XK-E (US) is a British automobile manufactured by Jaguar between 1961 and 1975. Its combination of good looks, high performance, and competitive pricing established the marque as an icon of 1960s motoring. A great success for Jaguar, over seventy thousand E-Types were sold during its lifespan.
In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in Daily Telegraph list of the "100 most beautiful cars" of all time.[2] In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s.

The E-Type was initially designed and shown to the public as a grand tourer in two-seater coupé form (FHC or Fixed Head Coupé) and as convertible (OTS or Open Two Seater). The 2+2 version with a lengthened wheelbase was released several years later.
On its release Enzo Ferrari called it "The most beautiful car ever made".
The model was made in three distinct versions which are now generally referred to as "Series 1", "Series 2" and "Series 3". A transitional series between Series 1 and Series 2 is known unofficially as "Series 1½".
In addition, several limited-edition variants were produced:
  • The "'Lightweight' E-Type" which was apparently intended as a sort of follow-up to the D-Type. Jaguar planned to produce 18 units but ultimately only a dozen were reportedly built. Of those, one is known to have been destroyed and two others have been converted to coupé form. These are exceedingly rare and sought after by collectors.
  • The "Low Drag Coupé" was a one-off technical exercise which was ultimately sold to a Jaguar racing driver. It is presently believed to be part of the private collection of the currentViscount Cowdray.

E1A (1957)

After the company's success at the LeMans 24 hr through the 1950s, Jaguar's defunct racing department was given the brief to use D-Type style construction to build a road going sports car, replacing the XK150.
It is suspected that the first prototype (E1A) was given the code based on: (E): The proposed production name E-Type (1): First Prototype (A): Aluminium construction (Production models used steel bodies)
The car featured a monocoque design, Jaguar's fully independent rear suspension and the well proved "XK" engine.
The car was used solely for factory testings and was never formally released to the public. The car was eventually scrapped by the factory.

[edit]E2A (1960)

Jaguar's second E-Type concept was E2A which, unlike the E1A, was constructed from a steel chassis and used a aluminium body. This car was completed as a race car as it was thought by Jaguar at the time it would provide a better testing ground. E2A used a 3 litre version of the XK engine with a Lucas fuel injection system.
After retiring from the LeMans 24 hr the car was shipped to America to be used for racing by Jaguar privateer Briggs Cunningham. In 1961 the car returned to Jaguar in England to be used as a testing mule. Ownership of E2A passed to Roger Woodley (Jaguar's customer competition car manager) who took possession on the basis the car not be used for racing. E2A had been scheduled to be scrapped. Roger's wife Penny Griffiths owned E2A until 2008 when it was offered for sale at Bonham's Quail Auction. It eventually sold for US$$4,957,000

Series 1 (1961–1968)

Series I
Jaguar Series 1 E-Type coupe
Body style(s)2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible
Engine(s)3.8 L XK I6
4.2 L XK I6
Transmission(s)4-speed manual, 3-speed automatic (1966-onward, 2+2 model only)
Wheelbase96.0 in (2438 mm) (FHC / OTS)
105.0 in (2667 mm) (2+2) [6]
Length175.3125 in (4453 mm) (FHC / OTS)
184.4375 in (4685 mm) (2+2) [6]
Width65.25 in (1657 mm) (all) [6]
Height48.125 in (1222 mm) (FHC)
50.125 in (1273 mm) (2+2)
46.5 in (1181 mm) (OTS)[6]
Curb weight2,900 lb (1,315 kg) (FHC)
2,770 lb (1,256 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2) [7]
The Series 1 was introduced, initially for export only, in March 1961. The domestic market launch came four months later in July 1961.[8] The cars at this time used the triple SU carburetted 3.8 litre 6-cylinder Jaguar XK6 engine from the XK150S. The first 500 cars built had flat floors and external hood (bonnet) latches. These cars are rare and more valuable. After that, the floors were dished to provide more leg room and the twin hood latches moved to inside the car. The 3.8 litre engine was increased to 4.2 litres in October 1964.[8]
All E-Types featured independent coil spring rear suspension with torsion bar front ends, and four wheel disc brakes, in-board at the rear, all were power-assisted. Jaguar was one of the first auto manufacturers to equip cars with disc brakes as standard from the XK150 in 1958. The Series 1 can be recognised by glass-covered headlights (up to 1967), small "mouth" opening at the front, signal lights and tail-lights above bumpers and exhaust tips under the licence plate in the rear.
3.8 litre cars have leather-upholstered bucket seats, an aluminium-trimmed centre instrument panel and console (changed to vinyl and leather in 1963), and a Moss 4-speed gearbox that lacks synchromesh for 1st gear ("Moss box"). 4.2 litre cars have more comfortable seats, improved brakes and electrical systems, and an all-synchromesh 4-speed gearbox. 4.2 litre cars also have a badge on the boot proclaiming "Jaguar 4.2 Litre E-Type" (3.8 cars have a simple "Jaguar" badge). Optional extras included chrome spoked wheels and a detachable hard top for the OTS.
A 2+2 version of the coupé was added in 1966. The 2+2 offered the option of an automatic transmission. The body is 9 in (229 mm) longer and the roof angles are different with a more vertical windscreen. (this is an incorrect assumption, the S1 OTS, coupe and 2+2 had identical rake windshields). The roadster remained a strict two-seater.
Less widely known, right at the end of Series 1 production and prior to the transitional "Series 1½" referred to below, a very small number of Series 1 cars were produced with open headlights.[9] Production dates on these machines vary but in right hand drive form production has been verified as late as March 1968.[10] The low number of these cars produced make them amongst the rarest of all production E Types.
Following the Series 1 there was a transitional series of cars built in 1967–68, unofficially called "Series 1½", which are externally similar to Series 1 cars. Due to American pressure the new features were open headlights, different switches, and some de-tuning (with a downgrade of twin Zenith-Stromberg carbs from the original triple SU carbs) for US models. Some Series 1½ cars also have twin cooling fans and adjustable seat backs. Series 2 features were gradually introduced into the Series 1, creating the unofficial Series 1½ cars, but always with the Series 1 body style.
An open 3.8-litre car, actually the first such production car to be completed, was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1961 and had a top speed of 149.1 mph (240.0 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 7.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 21.3 miles per imperial gallon (13.3 L/100 km; 17.7 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £2097 including taxes.[11]
Production numbers from Graham:[12]
  • 15,490 3.8s
  • 17,320 4.2s
  • 10,930 2+2s

Production numbers from xkedata.com:[13]
S1 3.87,6707,828015,498
S1 4.25,8306,7493,61616,195

Series 2 (1969–1971)

Series II
1970 Jaguar E-Type Roadster.JPG1970 Jaguar E-Type Roadster
Body style(s)2-door coupe
2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible
Engine(s)4.2 L XK I6
Curb weight3,018 lb (1,369 kg) (FHC)
2,750 lb (1,247 kg) (OTS)
3,090 lb (1,402 kg) (2+2) [7]
Open headlights without glass covers, a wrap-around rear bumper, re-positioned and larger front indicators and taillights below the bumpers, better cooling aided by an enlarged "mouth" and twin electric fans, and uprated brakes are hallmarks of Series 2 cars. De-tuned in US, but still with triple SUs in the UK, the engine is easily identified visually by the change from smooth polished cam covers to a more industrial 'ribbed' appearance. Late Series 1½ cars also had ribbed cam covers. The interior and dashboard were also redesigned, with rocker switches that met U.S health and safety regulations being substituted for toggle switches. The dashboard switches also lost their symmetrical layout. New seats were fitted, which purists claim lacked the style of the originals but were certainly more comfortable. Air conditioning and power steering were available as factory options.
Production according to Graham[12] is 13,490 of all types.
Series 2 production numbers from xkedata.com[13]:
Official delivery numbers by market and year are listed in Porter[4] but no summary totals are given.


Series 3 (1971–1974)

Series III
'74 Jaguar E-Type Convertible (Hudson).JPG1974 Jaguar E-Type Series III convertible (North America)
Body style(s)2-door 2+2 coupe
2-door convertible
Engine(s)5.3 L Jaguar V12
Wheelbase105 in (2667 mm) (both)[7]
Length184.4 in (4684 mm) (2+2)
184.5 in (4686 mm) (OTS)[7]
Width66.0 in (1676 mm) (2+2)
66.1 in (1679 mm) (OTS)[7]
Height48.9 in (1242 mm) (2+2)
48.1 in (1222 mm) (OTS)[7]
Curb weight3,361 lb (1,525 kg) (2+2)
3,380 lb (1,533 kg) (OTS)[7]
A new 5.3 L 12-cylinder Jaguar V12 engine was introduced, with uprated brakes and standard power steering. The short wheelbase FHC body style was discontinued and the V12 was available only as a convertible and 2+2 coupé. The convertible used the longer-wheelbase 2+2 floorplan. It is easily identifiable by the large cross-slatted front grille, flared wheel arches and a badge on the rear that proclaims it to be a V12. There were also a very limited number of 4.2 litre six-cylinder Series 3 E-Types built. These were featured in the initial sales literature. It is believed these are the rarest of all E-Types of any remaining.
In 2008 a British classic car enthusiast assembled what is surely the last ever E-Type from parts bought from the end-of-production surplus in 1974.[14]
Graham[12] lists production at 15,290.
Series 3 production numbers from xkedata.com[13]:

Limited editions

Two limited production E-Type variants were made as test beds, the Low Drag Coupe and Lightweight E-Type, both of which were raced:

Low Drag Coupé (1962)

Shortly after the introduction of the E-Type, Jaguar management wanted to investigate the possibility of building a car more in the spirit of the D-Type racer from which elements of the E-Type's styling and design were derived. One car was built to test the concept designed as a coupé as its monocoque design could only be made rigid 
enough for racing by using the "stressed skin" principle. Previous Jaguar racers were built as open-top cars, because they were based on ladder frame designs with independent chassis and bodies. Unlike the steel production E-Types, the LDC used lightweight aluminium. Sayer retained the original tub with lighter outer panels riveted and glued to it. The front steel sub frame remained intact, the windshield was given a more pronounced slope, and the rear hatch was welded shut. Rear brake cooling ducts appeared next to the rear windows,and the interior trim was discarded, with only insulation around the transmission tunnel. With the exception of the windscreen, all cockpit glass was plexi. A tuned version of Jaguar's 3.8 litre engine with a wide angle cylinder-head design tested on the D-Type racers was used. Air management became a problem and, though a higher performing vehicle that its production counterpart, the car was never competitive.
The only test bed car was completed in summer of 1962 but was sold a year later to Jaguar racing driver Dick Protheroe. Since then it has passed through the hands of several collectors on both sides of the Atlantic and is now believed to reside in the private collection of the current Viscount Cowdray.

[edit]Lightweight E-Type (1963–1964)

12 cars plus two spare bodies were made by Jaguar.
In some ways, this was an evolution of the Low Drag Coupé. It made extensive use of aluminium alloy in the body panels and other components. However, with at least one exception, it remained an open-top car in the spirit of the D-Type to which this car is a more direct successor than the production E-Type which is more of a GT than a sports car. The cars used an Aluminium block tuned version of the production 3.8 litre Jaguar engine with 300 bhp (224 kW) output rather than the 265 bhp (198 kW) produced by the "ordinary" version. All factory built lightweights are fitted with fuel-injection.
The cars were entered in various races but, unlike the C-Type and D-Type racing cars, they did not win at Le Mans or Sebring but were reasonably successful in private hands and in smaller races.
Some Lightweights where modified into Low-drag Coupes and fitted with more powerful engines of 340+ HP.

[edit]Motor Sport

Bob Jane won the 1963 Australian GT Championship at the wheel of an E-Type.
The Jaguar E-Type was very successful in SCCA Production sports car racing with Group44 and Bob Tullius taking the B-Production championship with a Series-3 V12 racer in 1975. A few years later, Gran-Turismo Jaguar from Cleveland Ohio campaigned a 4.2 L 6 cylinder FHC racer in SCCA production series and in 1980, won the National Championship in the SCCA C-Production Class defeating a fully funded factory Nissan Z-car team with Paul Newman.

ジャガー・EタイプJaguar E-type )はイギリスの高級車メーカージャガーより、1961年から1975年の間販売されたスポーツカーである。
その空力を意識したデザインはマルコム・セイヤーによるものである。 エンジンは当初3,781ccの直列6気筒DOHCで、後に4,235ccへと排気量が引き上げられ、最終的には5,343ccのV12気筒SOHCが搭載された。当初は4速マニュアルトランスミッションのみだったが、途中からは3速オートマチックトランスミッションを選べるようになった。ボディーは全モデルを通じてモノコックチューブラーフレームが併用されていた。


シリーズ1 3.8L(1961-1964年) [編集]

シリーズ1 クーペ

シリーズ1 4.2L(1964-1967年) [編集]

シリーズ1 4.2 ロードスター
元来、ロードスターではトランクリッドに、クーペではテールゲートに設置されていた「Jaguar」のエンブレムに加え、そのエンブレムの上に「E Type」、下には「4.2」のエンブレムが追加された。

シリーズ1 1/2 4.2L(1967-1968年) [編集]

シリーズ1 1/2 クーペ
1967年から1968年にかけて、1年弱の間にシリーズ1はアメリカ連邦安全基準に適合させるための変更を徐々に行った。このモデルは正式にはシリーズ1なのであるが、シリーズ2との共通点が数多くあるため、後年マニアより中間のモデルとして「シリーズ1 1/2」と呼ばれるようになっている。

シリーズ2 4.2L(1968-1970年) [編集]

シリーズ2 ロードスター

シリーズ2 クーペ
このモデルチェンジで最も目立つ変更点は灯火類である。ヘッドライトのカバーはシリーズ1 1/2と同様取り去られ、明度を確保するためにヘッドライトユニット自体が前進した。ヘッドライトユニットの上からボンネットに沿ってクロームメッキのラインが追加されている。フロントのウインカーおよびリアのブレーキランプとウインカーはそれぞれバンパーの下へと場所を移し、それぞれ大型化された。
ブレーキはロッキード製からガーリング製に変えられ、制動力が飛躍的に上がった。ホイールのスピンナーの耳は、シリーズ1 1/2と同様、歩行者を引っ掛けないようにという目的からなくなり、ホイールを外すときにはアダプターが必要になった。
内装においてはシートがリクライニングになり、ヘッドレストがオプションで選べるようになった。スイッチ類はシリーズ1 1/2で採用となったロッカースイッチが引き続き採用された。
エンジンはシリーズ1から引き続き使われた直列6気筒の4,235ccであるが、シリーズ1 1/2で触れたようにエンジンのカムカバーが美しいポリッシュ仕上げではなくなり、黒とシルバーに塗装されたものへと換えられた。ヨーロッパ仕様はSUの3連キャブレターを採用していたが、アメリカ仕様では排気ガス規制への対策からゼニス・ストロンバーグ製キャブレター2基を搭載することを余儀なくされ、パフォーマンスはかなり低下した。一方ラジエーターは容量がアップし、オーバーヒートの心配がなくなった。特に暑い国ではラジエーターグリルの大型化とあいまってかなり信頼性が向上した。トランスミッションもシリーズ1の4,235ccと同様である。

シリーズ3 5.3L(1971-1975年) [編集]

シリーズ3 ロードスター

シリーズ3 2+2

レース参戦 [編集]


ロー・ドラッグ・クーペ [編集]

プライベーターがレースに参加して得られた情報をもとに、ジャガーはプライベーターに向けた「特別なEタイプ」を開発し始める。これがまず最初に登場したロー・ドラッグ・クーペ(Low Drag Coupe )であった。

ライトウェイト(1962-1964年) [編集]

1962年に入り、フェラーリ・250GTOがホモロゲーションを取得してレースに参戦し始めると、その高い戦闘力の前にプライベーターのEタイプは優位性を失った。そこでジャガーとしては性急にフェラーリに勝てる車を開発する必要に迫られた。アルミボディでホモロゲーションが得られることがわかるとジャガーはボディパネルをアルミで作成し、エンジンや足周りをチューニングしたEタイプ ライトウェイトを発売することにした。ボディパネルはアビィ・パネルズに注文し、それを組み立てた。エンジンはロー・ドラッグ・クーペと同様、ルーカスのインジェクションを備えたXK 3.8Lエンジンで、300イギリス馬力以上を発揮した。計12台のライトウェイトが作られてレースに出場し、また同様のスペックでスティールボディのモデルも別に2台作られたが、これらのモデルはCタイプDタイプ程の目覚ましい活躍をすることはできなかった。

El Jaguar E-Type (conocido en Estados Unidos como el Jaguar XK-E) es un automóvil deportivo del fabricante inglés Jaguar Cars, fabricado entre los años 1961 y 1975. Causó sensación la exhibición en el Salón del Automóvil de Ginebra en marzo de 1961, la deslumbrante recepción evocó el lanzamiento realizado en Inglaterra, en 1948, del modelo XK120. Pocas semanas después, hacían acto de presencia en el Salón del Automóvil de Nueva York. La reacción fue igualmente espectacular. El E-Type produjo una verdadera sensación mundial. Las revistas británicas especializadas del automóvil habían organizado varias pruebas con los prototipos de pre-lanzamiento. El E-Type llegaba al mercado con la difícil misión de reemplazar a los exitosos XK120, XK140 y XK150, con dos tipos de carrocería: roadster y cupé. Sus líneas fueron una creación del diseñador británico Malcolm Sayer, quien aprovechó sus amplios conocimientos en aerodinámica, producto de sus exitosas experiencias en aeronáutica, para crear una silueta limpia y aerodinámicamente eficiente.
La unidad motriz del E-Type fue el mismo bloque ya utilizado en los XK, un potente seis cilindros en línea de 3,8 litros diseñado durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, que contaba con doble árbol de levas, fundición de hierro en el bloque y culata de aluminio, alimentada por tres carburadores, producía 265 HP a 5.500 rpm,1 que le permitía alcanzar 150 mph (240 km/h) con una aceleración de 0 a 62 mph (0 a 100 km/h) en 6,9 segundos. Innovaciones técnicas muy interesantes incluyen frenos de disco en las cuatro esquinas, dobles muelles en el eje posterior y la triple raqueta de limpiaparabrisas.
En 1996, el Museo de Arte Moderno de Nueva York adquirió un E-Type Serie I como parte de su colección permanente, el cual se reconoció por su estilo y desempeño.

La Jaguar E-Type, conosciuta anche come XK-E o anche XKE, è una vettura prodotta dalla Jaguar dal 1961 al 1975. La E-Type fu una vettura rivoluzionaria per quanto riguarda la progettazione, le caratteristiche di guida e l'estetica che era in anticipo rispetto ai tempi nei quali la vettura venne presentata. Inoltre il suo prezzo era più basso di quello delle vetture pari classe della concorrenza e questo aiutò le vendite che, nei 14 anni nei quali rimase in produzione, arrivarono a 70.000 vetture. Nel 2004 la rivista statunitenseSports Cars International la mise al primo posto tra le Top Sport Cars degli anni sessanta. Anche in Italia diventerà oggetto di culto per amatori e collezionisti.
È conosciuta anche perché è la macchina dei personaggi dei fumetti Diabolik e Eva Kant.

Disegnata da Malcolm Sayer, al quale si deve anche la precedente fortunata serie XK, la E-type fu inizialmente progettata per essere una coupé gran turismo sportivo a due posti e così venne presentata al pubblico. La versione 2+2, con passo allungato, venne realizzata nel 1966. Il 15 marzo 1961 la versione coupé (nel linguaggio Jaguar "Fixed Head Coupé" o "FHC") fu presentata al Salone dell'Auto di Ginevra, mentre la roadster (altresì detta "Open Two Seater" o "OTS") fu lanciata ad aprile dello stesso anno al Salone dell'Auto di New York. Questa versione aperta fu introdotta principalmente per andare incontro ai gusti del mercato americano. Il modello venne costruito in tre differenti serie che, appunto, sono indicate come Series 1Series 2 e Series 3. Furono presentate anche versioni speciali prodotte in un limitatissimo numero di esemplari: la versione Low Drag Coupé, un solo esemplare prodotto, e la Lightweight E-Type. Quest'ultima versione doveva essere di 18 esemplari ma sembra che ne siano stati realizzati solo 12 dei quali uno è andato distrutto e almeno due sono stati trasformati in decappottabile. Queste vetture speciali sono molto ricercate dai collezionisti proprio per la loro estrema rarità.

Disegnata da Malcolm Sayer, al quale si deve anche la precedente fortunata serie XK, la E-type fu inizialmente progettata per essere una coupé gran turismo sportivo a due posti e così venne presentata al pubblico. La versione 2+2, con passo allungato, venne realizzata nel 1966. Il 15 marzo 1961 la versione coupé (nel linguaggio Jaguar "Fixed Head Coupé" o "FHC") fu presentata al Salone dell'Auto di Ginevra, mentre la roadster (altresì detta "Open Two Seater" o "OTS") fu lanciata ad aprile dello stesso anno al Salone dell'Auto di New York. Questa versione aperta fu introdotta principalmente per andare incontro ai gusti del mercato americano. Il modello venne costruito in tre differenti serie che, appunto, sono indicate come Series 1Series 2 e Series 3. Furono presentate anche versioni speciali prodotte in un limitatissimo numero di esemplari: la versione Low Drag Coupé, un solo esemplare prodotto, e la Lightweight E-Type. Quest'ultima versione doveva essere di 18 esemplari ma sembra che ne siano stati realizzati solo 12 dei quali uno è andato distrutto e almeno due sono stati trasformati in decappottabile. Queste vetture speciali sono molto ricercate dai collezionisti proprio per la loro estrema rarità.

Le diverse serie della E-Type [modifica]

Series I (1961-1968) [modifica]

La Series 1 venne introdotta nel marzo del 1961. Rispetto alla precedente serie XK, abbandonava il classico telaio a longheroni e traverse per una più moderna soluzione monoscocca con telaietto anteriore supplementare. Montava il motore Jaguar da 3,8 L derivato da quello dellaXK150, alimentato da tre carburatori SU HD8, con una potenza di 265 CV, abbinato ad un cambio meccanico a quattro marce MOSS, con prima non sincronizzata. Nel 1965 questo motore venne sostituito da quello, sempre Jaguar, da 4,2 L. Al retrotreno veniva adottata una sospensione a ruote indipendenti al posto del tradizionale schema a ponte rigido. La Series 1 può essere riconosciuta dai seguenti particolari:
  • la presa d'aria anteriore, la bocca, di dimensioni ridotte;
  • le luci di segnalazione sono posizionate sopra i paraurti;
  • il terminale di scarico doppio è posto sotto la targa posteriore;
  • i fanali sono dotati una copertura in vetro.
I primi esemplari, realizzati tra il 1961 ed il 1962, furono definiti flat floor, in quanto avevano la particolarità di avere il pianale piatto in corrispondenza dell'appoggio dei piedi, limitando un poco lo spazio a disposizione. Successivamente il fondo venne modificato. Le auto che montavano il motore da 3,8 L avevano i sedili di forma arrotondata e il cruscotto era in alluminio. Le vetture che invece montavano il 4,2 L avevano dei sedili più confortevoli e il cruscotto ricoperto di fintapelle. Inoltre su queste vetture era presente, sul bagagliaio, la scritta Jaguar 4.2 Liter E-Type mentre nelle vetture dotate del 3,8 L questa era semplicemente Jaguar. Infine sulla 4.2 L il cambio, prodotto interamente dalla Jaguar era completamente sincronizzato.
Negli anni 1967 e 1968 venne realizzata una serie particolare che venne definita Series 1 1/2. Queste vetture erano esternamente simili alle E-type standard tranne che per l'assenza della protezione in vetro per il gruppo dei fanali. Dal punto di vista meccanico si differenziavano per l'adozione, sui veicoli esportati verso gli USA, di due carburatori Zenith-Stromberg al posto dei tre carburatori SU. Questa ed altre modifiche rendevano meno potente la vettura. Nel 1966 fece la sua comparsa la versione 2+2 del coupé mentre la versione scoperta rimase una due posti.

Series 2 (1969-1970) [modifica]

Le modifiche principali introdotte con questa serie sono le seguenti: impianto frenante più potente, paraurti ingranditi e, per i veicoli esportati negli USA, una riduzione della potenza. Vennero aggiunti ripetitori per le frecce di dimensioni generose e posteriormente furono adottati fanalini mutuati dalla Lotus Elan S2.

Series 3 (1971-1975) [modifica]

Sulle vetture di questa serie venne introdotto il nuovo motore V-12 della Jaguar da 5,3 L di cilindrata. Nuovamente l'impianto frenante venne potenziato e divenne di serie il servosterzo. Fu adottato un impianto di scarico con quattro terminali posteriori.

Le versioni speciali [modifica]

Della E-Type furono realizzate due versioni speciali: la Low Drag Coupé e la Lightweight E-Type.

Una E Type S1 Light Weight da competizione

Vista posteriore
La Low Drag Coupé nasce dal tentativo della Jaguar di realizzare una vettura che, nello spirito, si avvicinasse alla vettura da corsa D-type da cui, per caratteristiche ed elementi stilistici, la E-type era derivata. Venne realizzata una sola vettura con la quale sperimentare questo concetto. La vettura venne progettata fin dall'inizio come coupé, in quanto l'esperto di aerodinamica Malcom Sayer aveva capito che con la formula della vettura coperta era più semplice realizzare un veicolo leggero e aerodinamico in confronto alle vetture scoperte con le quali la Jaguar gareggiava in quel periodo. A differenza della E-Type di serie la carrozzeria venne realizzata usando il leggerissimo, ma costoso e difficile da lavorare, alluminio. Il telaio rimase in acciaio. La vettura montava una versione migliorata del motore da 3,8 L. Sui cilindri di questo motore vennero montate delle teste speciali, sperimentate sulle vetture Jaguar che avevano partecipato alle gare di Le Mans. La vetture venne completata nell'estate del 1962 ma solo dopo alcuni anni venne venduta al pilota Dick Protheroe che la utilizzò in molte gare. La vettura fu poi venduta e passò nelle mani di molti collezionisti di entrambe le sponde dell' Atlantico. Si pensa che oggi faccia parte della collezione privata dell'attuale visconte Comdray.
Della Lightweight E-Type furono realizzati una dozzina di esemplari. Questa vettura può essere vista come una evoluzione della Low Drag Coupé. Anche su questa vettura l'alluminio venne usato ampiamente nella carrozzeria e per altre componenti. Questa vettura però nasceva come decappottabile e rimaneva nello spirito più vicina alla D-Type di quanto lo fosse la E-Type, una vettura da gran turismo piuttosto che da competizione. Su questa vettura venne montato un motore da 3,8 L migliorato che forniva 300 hp (224 kW) contro i 265 hp (198 kW) della versione di serie. Su almeno una vettura venne montato il sistema di iniezione del carburante sviluppato dalla Lucas. La vettura partecipò a diverse gare ma non portando alla Casa i risultati delle altre vetture.
Significativo il pensiero di Enzo Ferrari: "L'auto più bella mai costruita"[1]

Der Jaguar E-Type (in den USA: Jaguar XK-E) war ein Sportwagen-Modell des englischen Autoherstellers Jaguar. Er wurde am 15. März 1961 auf dem Genfer Auto-Salon als Abkömmling des erfolgreichen Rennwagens Jaguar D-Type vorgestellt. Der Sechszylinder-Reihenmotor mit 3781 cm³ und 197,6 kW (265 bhp/269 PS) entsprach dem des XK 150 S 3,8 Liter. Außer seiner hohen Leistung galt insbesondere das von Malcolm Sayer entwickelte Design als aufregend. Vor allem in den USA wurde der E-Type mit großem Erfolg verkauft. Der Stahlgitterrohrrahmen unter der Motorhaube trug Motor und Vorderradaufhängung und war an der Spritzwand mit der im Übrigen selbsttragenden Ganzstahlkarosserie verschraubt. Jaguar ging damit den beim Jaguar D-Type eingeschlagenen Weg weiter. Die Hinterachse wurde über ein Viergangschaltgetriebe angetrieben. Revolutionär für die traditionell konservative britische Autoindustrie war die hintere Einzelradaufhängung in einem eigenen Hilfsrahmen mit einem Längslenker und zwei Federbeinen sowie Querlenkern an jedem Rad, mit den Antriebswellen als oberen Querlenkern. Die Konstruktion erwies sich hinsichtlich des Fahrverhaltens, des Fahrkomforts und des Aussehens als außerordentlich gelungen und wurde bis 1996 verwendet. Der E-Type erreichte eine Höchstgeschwindigkeit von knapp 240 km/h. Er war als zwei- und 2+2-sitziges Coupé (Fixed-Head Coupé) und als zweisitziger Roadster (OTS oder Open Two Seater) erhältlich.

Ein erstes Versuchsmodell, E1A genannt, war bereits im Jahr 1958 fahrbereit. Von dem kurz darauf verschrotteten Prototyp liegen Aufnahmen der Motorsportliebhaberin Margaret Jennings vor. Obwohl der E-Type ein reines Straßenfahrzeug werden sollte, kam der folgende Prototyp E2A 1960 auf die Rennstrecke, als der amerikanische Sportfahrer und Industrielle Briggs Cunningham von den Versuchen bei Jaguar erfuhr und darauf bestand, ein solches Fahrzeug zu bekommen.

Jaguar E-Type 3,8 Liter [Bearbeiten]

Der Reiz des E-Type lag in seinen Fahrleistungen, in seiner Ausstrahlung und seinem günstigen Preis. Der 3,8-Liter-Reihensechszylinder (3781 cm³) hat eine Leistung von 197,6 kW (269 PS) bei 5500/min und ein max. Drehmoment von 353 Nm bei 4000/min. Damit beschleunigt der E-Type in ca. 7 Sekunden auf 100 km/h und erreicht eine Höchstgeschwindigkeit von 241 km/h. Kritisiert wurden die anfangsfadingempfindlichen Bremsen. Auch war der Innenraum recht beengt. Die frühen Flat-Floor-Ausführungen werden nur von Puristen geschätzt. Wesentlich angenehmer wurde der Aufenthalt, nachdem die Bodenbleche im Fußraum etwas abgesenkt und durch eine Aussparung im Blech die Verstellmöglichkeit der Sitzschalen verbessert worden waren.

Jaguar E-Type Lightweight (1963) [Bearbeiten]

1963er Rennversion
Speziell für Rennen wurde eine Aluminiumversion des E-Type konstruiert. Mit einer leistungsstärkeren Version der 3,8-Liter-Maschine kam der Rennwagen unter anderem in Le Mansund Sebring zum Einsatz. Einer seiner berühmtesten Piloten war der deutsche Importeur Peter Lindner, der beim 1000-Kilometer-Rennen auf dem Nürburgring in den ersten Runden führte. Mit dem Nachfolgemodell des Lightweight von 1963 verunglückte Lindner am 11. Oktober 1964 im französischen Montlhéry vor den Toren der Hauptstadt Paris tödlich.

Jaguar E-Type 4,2 Liter [Bearbeiten]

1963 auf dem Nürburgring

Lindner/Nöcker beim Boxenstopp 1964
1964 wurde der 3,8-Liter-Reihensechszylinder-Motor auf 4,2 Liter (4235 cm³) aufgebohrt, hat damit ein maximales Drehmoment von 384 Nm bei 4000/min, bei gleicher Motorleistung (197,6 kW/269 PS bei 5400/min). Gleichzeitig wurde anstelle der Moss-Box mit ihrem unsynchronisierten ersten Gang und langen Schaltwegen ein voll synchronisiertes, von Jaguar selbst entwickeltes Viergang-Schaltgetriebe verwendet. Besonders die Verbesserung der schwach gepolsterten Sitze kam den Jaguar-Piloten zugute.
1966 kam der 2+2 hinzu, ein Coupé mit längerem Radstand und zwei Notsitzen im Fond. Ist die Sitzlehne vorgeklappt, ergibt sich eine geräumige, allerdings durch die große Heckscheibe uneingeschränkt einsehbare Gepäckablage. Für den 2+2 war wahlweise ein Dreigang-Automatikgetriebe von BorgWarner erhältlich.
Die im Konkurrenzgefüge zur Corvette vorgeschobenen amerikanischen Sicherheits- und Umweltbestimmungen machten deutliche Modifikationen des E-Type erforderlich. So erschien 1968 der E-Type Serie II mit vielen Neuerungen. Die nun fehlenden Scheinwerferabdeckungen trafen den Stil der aerodynamischen Konstruktion hart, was damals im Hause Jaguar als Stilbruch angesehen wurde (schon ein Jahr vorher eingeführt bei der nachträglich so genannten Serie 1 ½), wobei die Scheinwerfer ab Serie 2 auch noch weiter nach vorn versetzt werden mussten, was in der zeitgenössischen Literatur einmal mehr als Desaster bezeichnet wurde und sich bis heute im Liebhabermarkt am erheblichen Wertunterschied widerspiegelt. Hinzu kamen Wippschalter am Armaturenbrett, eine größere Kühleröffnung, ebenfalls größere, jetzt unterhalb der Stoßfänger montierte Blinker- und Rücklichteinheiten und eine flacher stehende Windschutzscheibe beim 

Jaguar E-Type V12 [Bearbeiten]

1967 Jaguar E-Type 2+2 Serie „1 1/2“
1971 erhielt der E-Type einen neu entwickelten 5,3 Liter (5343 cm³) V12-Motor mit einer Leistung von 203 kW (276 PS) bei 5850/min und einem maximalen Drehmoment von 412 Nm bei 3600/min. Mit diesem V12-Motor, dessen Vorgänger bis ins Jahr 1935 zurückreichten, präsentierte Jaguar den ersten Großserienzwölfzylinder mit Leichtmetallblock und Heron-Brennräumen im Kolbenboden. Später wurden diese Brennräume noch einmal von BMW verbessert, was den Verbrauch um ca. drei Liter/100 km senkte. Diese Version wurde auch in die letzten 12-Zylinder-Limousinen und Coupés von Jaguar (XJ undXJ-S) und in den Daimler Double Six mit der Zusatzbezeichnung HE (High Efficiency) eingebaut. Die vorher wegen der amerikanischen Gesetzesanforderungen geringeren Fahrleistungen wurden durch den V12-Motor wieder ausgeglichen, aber das Auto war insgesamt nicht mehr so aggressiv und agil wie zu Anfang – der Roadster hatte nun den langen Radstand des 2+2, das kurze Coupé war nicht mehr erhältlich. Vielen Liebhabern der Urversion galt das jetzige Modell als „zu weich“, und der vergitterte Kühlergrill nahm dem Wagen einiges von seiner ursprünglichen Aggressivität. Die Serie III hatte wegen der größeren Spurweite und der etwas breiteren Reifen verbreiterte Kotflügel, aber ansonsten den gleichen Aufbau. Die Scheibenbremsen waren nun vorn von innen belüftet. Am Markt hatte es der verbrauchsintensive E-Type V12 schwer, weil während seiner kurzen Ära die Ölkrise die Benzinpreise in die Höhe trieb.
Im September 1974 endete die Produktion des E-Type, was jedoch erst 1975 bekannt gegeben wurde. 15.508 Exemplare mit 3,8-Liter-Motor, 41.734 mit 4,2-Liter und 15.293 V12-Modelle wurden gebaut.

Jaguar E-Type als Oldtimer [Bearbeiten]

Serie III: 1972er Roadster
Der Jaguar E-Type ist heute ein begehrter Oldtimer. Die höchsten Preise erzielen mit über 100.000 Euro die Roadster der ersten Serie. Am günstigsten sind die 2+2-Coupés der Serien II und III, die zu Preisen ab 20.000 Euro für ein fahrfertiges Exemplar gehandelt werden. In der Regel sind Roadster um die Hälfte teurer als vergleichbare Coupés. Im englischsprachigen Ausland hat sich inzwischen die Nachfrage nach den 4,2-Liter-Roadstern der ersten Serie so verstärkt, dass sie zu den teuersten Angeboten gehören.
Generell sind die frühen Versionen mit den Scheinwerferabdeckungen am teuersten, dicht gefolgt von den Roadstern mit 12-Zylinder-Motoren. Für alle späteren Modelle ab Serie 1,5 sind seit 1999 nachrüstbare Scheinwerferabdeckungen als „Design Restoration Kit“ erhältlich.

No comments: